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## In which unit of measurement seismic waves are measured?

The Richter scale calculates an earthquake’s magnitude (size) from the amplitude of the earthquake’s largest seismic wave recorded by a seismograph.

## Where the seismic waves are measured?

It is a measure of the largest seismic wave recorded on a particular kind of seismograph located 100 kilometers (about 62 miles) from the epicenter of the earthquake. Think of a seismograph as a kind of sensitive pendulum that records the shaking of the Earth. The output of a seismograph is known as a seismogram.

## Do we still use the Richter scale?

For millions of people raised in earthquake country, the Richter scale was a constant companion. Earthquakes were reported on the Richter scale, a mathematical formula invented by Caltech seismologist Charles Richter in 1935 to compare quake sizes. But no one uses the Richter scale anymore in the media or in science.

## How do they measure earthquakes?

A seismograph is the primary earthquake measuring instrument. The seismograph produces a digital graphic recording of the ground motion caused by the seismic waves. The digital recording is called a seismogram. A network of worldwide seismographs detects and measures the strength and duration of the earthquake’s waves.

## What is the formula for the Richter scale?

The Richter scale defines the magnitude of an earthquake to be R=log(IcIn) where Ic is the intensity of the earthquake and In is the intensity of a standard earthquake.

## What is the weakest intensity scale?

Answer: The PEIS has ten intensity scales represented in Roman numerals with Intensity I being the weakest. lntensity X being the strongest. Destructive.

## What is a 10 on the Richter scale?

The Richter scale is a base-10 logarithmic scale, meaning that each order of magnitude is 10 times more intensive than the last one. In other words, a two is 10 times more intense than a one and a three is 100 times greater.

## What is the strongest intensity scale?

Intensity X (10) is the highest value on the MMI. Learn more: Earthquake Magnitude, Energy Release, and Shaking Intensity. Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale.

## How strong is Intensity 5?

Scales

PHIVOLCS Earthquake Intensity Scale (PEIS)
Intensity Scale Description Equivalent to other seismic scales
IV Moderately strong 3
V Strong 4
VI Very Strong 5-

Japan

five minutes

Lituya Bay

## Which earthquake killed the most?

The most deadly earthquake in history was in Shaanxi, China in 1556. It’s estimated to have killed 830,000 people….What were the world’s deadliest earthquakes?

Ranking 1 Shaanxi, China 1556 830,000 8

## Could an earthquake destroy the world?

Earthquakes as Existential Risks. Earthquakes are not typically considered existential or even global catastrophic risks, and for good reason: they’re localized events. While they may be devastating to the local community, rarely do they impact the whole world.

## Has there ever been a 9 earthquake?

The world’s largest earthquake with an instrumentally documented magnitude occurred on May 22, 1960 near Valdivia, in southern Chile. It was assigned a magnitude of 9.5 by the United States Geological Survey. It is referred to as the “Great Chilean Earthquake” and the “1960 Valdivia Earthquake.”

## What was the longest lasting earthquake?

1960 Valdivia earthquake

## What is the biggest earthquake in California?

​​California’s Largest Recorded Earthquakes Since 1800, Ranked by Magnitude​

​​Magnitude​ Date Location​
7.9 Jan. 9, 1857 Fort Tejon
7.8 April 18, 1906 San Francisco
7.4 Mar. 26, 1872 Owens Valley
7.4 Nov. 8, 1980 W. of Eureka*

## Will California have a big earthquake soon?

Evidence shows that the San Andreas, San Jacinto and Hayward faults should produce a major earthquake roughly three or four times per century (Biasi and Scherer, 2019). Yet, the last one struck in 1918. This might not seem like a bad thing. After all, no one wants to experience a big earthquake.

## Did California just have a 7.1 earthquake?

California earthquake: 7.1 quake shakes Southern California 1 day after magnitude 6.4. An earthquake on the evening of July 5 was felt around the greater Los Angeles region. The area in and around Ridgecrest, already trying to recover from the previous temblor, took the brunt of damage.

## Why California has so many earthquakes?

The earthquakes of California are caused by the movement of huge blocks of the earth’s crust- the Pacific and North American plates. Over time, these faults produce about half of the significant earthquakes of our region, as well as many minor earthquakes.

## Why California is sinking?

Global sea level has been rising at a rate of 0.1 inches (3.3 millimeters) per year in the past three decades. The causes are mostly the thermal expansion of warming ocean water and the addition of fresh water from melting ice sheets and glaciers.

## Will California fall into the ocean?

No, California is not going to fall into the ocean. California is firmly planted on the top of the earth’s crust in a location where it spans two tectonic plates. There is nowhere for California to fall, however, Los Angeles and San Francisco will one day be adjacent to one another!

## Can a tsunami hit San Francisco?

Although they aren’t generated here, tsunamis do occasionally hit our shores. Since 1854, more than 71 tsunamis have been recorded in San Francisco Bay. The worst tsunami to hit the Bay Area was triggered in 1964 by a magnitude 9.2 earthquake in Alaska, Geist says, that killed 11 people in Crescent City.

2021-01-22

Richter scale

## How are these seismic waves measured?

First, the amplitude of the surface wave is measured on a seismogram produced by a Wood-Anderson seismometer (a specfic type of seismometer) and then it is compared with distance from the earthquake or the S-P time (which is the amount of time between the P-wave and S-wave arrival) to yield a magnitude.

## How is intensity determined?

Magnitude is determined from measurements on seismographs. Intensity measures the strength of shaking produced by the earthquake at a certain location. Intensity is determined from effects on people, human structures, and the natural environment.

## What does intensity mean?

1 : the quality or state of being intense especially : extreme degree of strength, force, energy, or feeling. 2 : the magnitude of a quantity (such as force or energy) per unit (as of area, charge, mass, or time)

## What are 2 examples of intensity?

An example of intensity is having the ability to run miles on end at a top speed. An example of intensity is how quickly a treadmill is moving. Degree or extent; relative strength, magnitude, vigor, etc. Saturation.

## What is intensity measured in?

Intensity is an objective measure of the time-averaged power density of a wave at a particular location. The SI unit of intensity is the watt per square meter .

## What is intensity of drug action?

In addition to the characteristics of the drug (pharmacokinetics), the intensity and response are also based on the characteristics of the patient. The intensity of effect of a drug dose can be increased or decreased if the patient is hyperreactive or hyporeactive (compared to the majority of patients) to the drug.

## What are the 4 pharmacokinetic principles?

There are four main components of pharmacokinetics: liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (LADME). These are used to explain the various characteristics of different drugs in the body.

## What are the 4 steps of pharmacokinetics?

Think of pharmacokinetics as a drug’s journey through the body, during which it passes through four different phases: absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). The four steps are: Absorption: Describes how the drug moves from the site of administration to the site of action.

## What are the four main drug actions?

The mechanisms of action include inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis, inhibition of cell wall synthesis, inhibition of enzymatic activity, alteration of cell membrane permeability, and blockade of specific biochemical pathways.

## What drug does to the body is called?

The action of drugs on the human body is called pharmacodynamics, and what the body does with the drug is called pharmacokinetics. The drugs that enter the human tend to stimulate certain receptors, ion channels, act on enzymes or transporter proteins. As a result, they cause the human body to react in a specific way.

## Do drugs have a single action?

One major problem of pharmacology is that no drug produces a single effect. The primary effect is the desired therapeutic effect. Secondary effects are all other effects beside the desired effect which may be either beneficial or harmful.

## Which drug is used as anti inflammatory?

Over-the-Counter Anti-inflammatory Drugs

BRAND NAME GENERIC NAME
Aleve naproxen sodium
Ascriptin, Bayer, Ecotrin aspirin

## What is a bound drug?

Plasma protein binding refers to the degree to which medications attach to proteins within the blood. A drug’s efficiency may be affected by the degree to which it binds. The less bound a drug is, the more efficiently it can traverse cell membranes or diffuse.

## What are the four types of drug receptors in the human body?

7.2 Drug receptors

• Transmembrane ion-channels receptors.
• Transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors.
• Transmembrane receptors with cytosolic domain.
• Intracellular (cytoplasm or nucleus) receptors.

## How many receptors are in the human body?

Sensory receptors exist in all layers of the skin. There are six different types of mechanoreceptors detecting innocuous stimuli in the skin: those around hair follicles, Pacinian corpuscles, Meissner corpuscles, Merkel complexes, Ruffini corpuscles, and C-fiber LTM (low threshold mechanoreceptors).

## What is Cmax and Tmax?

Cmax – the maximum concentration recorded. tmax – the time take to reach Cmax. AUC (Area Under the Curve) – a measure of the exposure to the drug.

## How do you tell if a drug is an agonist or antagonist?

An agonist is a drug that binds to the receptor, producing a similar response to the intended chemical and receptor. Whereas an antagonist is a drug that binds to the receptor either on the primary site, or on another site, which all together stops the receptor from producing a response.

## Is caffeine an agonist or antagonist?

Caffeine, however, is an adenosine receptor ANTAGONIST, which means that it hits those same receptors in place of adenosine, and promotes wakefulness instead.

2019-10-15