What effect do viruses have on a host cell?
Effects on Cell Biochemistry: Many viruses inhibit the synthesis of host cell macromolecules, including DNA, RNA, and protein. Viruses may also change cellular transcriptional activity, and protein-protein interactions, promoting efficient production of progeny virus.
How does a virus cell identify its host?
A virus identifies its host by fitting its surface proteins to receptor molecules on the surface of the host cell. Some may enter cells by endocytosis, if the viruses are enveloped, they can also enter a host cell by fusing with the plasma membrane of the host cell and releasing the capsid into the cell’s cytoplasm.
What do viruses use to attach to their host cells?
A virus attaches to a specific receptor site on the host cell membrane through attachment proteins in the capsid or via glycoproteins embedded in the viral envelope.
How do viruses kill host cells?
The new viruses burst out of the host cell during a process called lysis, which kills the host cell. Some viruses take a portion of the host’s membrane during the lysis process to form an envelope around the capsid. Following viral replication, the new viruses may go on to infect new hosts.
Why do viruses stop replicating?
Viruses cannot replicate on their own, but rather depend on their host cell’s protein synthesis pathways to reproduce. This typically occurs by the virus inserting its genetic material in host cells, co-opting the proteins to create viral replicates, until the cell bursts from the high volume of new viral particles.
Where do virus reproduce?
A virus is a tiny, infectious particle that can reproduce only by infecting a host cell. Viruses “commandeer” the host cell and use its resources to make more viruses, basically reprogramming it to become a virus factory. Because they can’t reproduce by themselves (without a host), viruses are not considered living.