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## What is the nucleus of the atom?

The nucleus is a collection of particles called protons, which are positively charged, and neutrons, which are electrically neutral. Protons and neutrons are in turn made up of particles called quarks. The chemical element of an atom is determined by the number of protons, or the atomic number, Z, of the nucleus.

## What is the nucleus of an atom compared to?

The nucleus of an atom is about 10-15 m in size; this means it is about 10-5 (or 1/100,000) of the size of the whole atom. A good comparison of the nucleus to the atom is like a pea in the middle of a racetrack. (10-15 m is typical for the smaller nuclei; larger ones go up to about 10 times that.)

## How do you find the nucleus of an atom?

A nucleus is identified as in the example below by its atomic number Z (i.e., the number of protons), the neutron number, N, and the mass number, A, where A = Z + N. The convention for designating nuclei is by atomic number, Z, and mass number, A, as well as its chemical symbol.

## What is the charge of the nucleus of an atom?

The atom consists of a tiny nucleus surrounded by moving electrons. The nucleus contains protons, which have a positive charge equal in magnitude to the electron’s negative charge. The nucleus may also contain neutrons, which have virtually the same mass but no charge.

## Why is the nucleus positive?

The nucleus has an overall positive charge as it contains the protons. Every atom has no overall charge (neutral). This is because they contain equal numbers of positive protons and negative electrons. These opposite charges cancel each other out making the atom neutral.

## What does the nucleus do?

The nucleus controls and regulates the activities of the cell (e.g., growth and metabolism) and carries the genes, structures that contain the hereditary information. Nucleoli are small bodies often seen within the nucleus.

## What are the 3 functions of the nucleus?

Functions of Nucleus

• It controls the heredity characteristics of an organism.
• It main cellular metabolism through controlling synthesis of particular enzymes.
• It is responsible for protein synthesis, cell division, growth and differentiation.
• Stores heredity material in the form of deoxy-ribonucleic acid (DNA) strands.

## What would happen without the nucleus?

Without nucleus the cell will lose its control. It can not carry out cellular reproduction. Also, the cell will not know what to do and there would be no cell division. Gradually, the cell may die.

## Can cell survive without nucleus?

Nucleus is the brain of the cell and controls most of its functions. Thus without a nucleus, an animal cell or eukaryotic cell will die. Without a nucleus, the cell will not know what to do and there would be no cell division. Protein synthesis would either cease or incorrect proteins would be formed.

Stem cells

mitochondria

## What are the 3 most important organelles?

​Organelle Among the more important cell organelles are the nuclei, which store genetic information; mitochondria, which produce chemical energy; and ribosomes, which assemble proteins.

## Are organelles alive?

So all of the organelles in a cell like the nucleus, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum are all non-living. It’s only when all of the parts of a cell come together to make a cell that you have a functional living entity.

## What can a cell live without?

According to established scientific knowledge, complex cells (called eukaryotic cells) can’t survive without mitochondria – tiny organelles that control respiration and power movement and growth.

## Why do RBC survive without nucleus?

Losing the nucleus enables the red blood cell to contain more oxygen-carrying hemoglobin, thus enabling more oxygen to be transported in the blood and boosting our metabolism.

## Can a cell survive without cytoplasm?

If a cell would be without cytoplasm it could not retain its shape and would be deflated and flat. The organelles would not stay suspended in the solution of a cell without the support of cytoplasm.

## What happens if a ribosome is defective?

Ribosomes are organelles that create proteins. Cells use proteins to perform important functions such as repairing cellular damage and directing chemical processes. Without these ribosomes, cells would not be able to produce protein and would not be able to function properly.

## What happens if the nucleolus is defective?

If the nucleus didn’t exist, the cell wouldn’t have direction and the nucleolus, which is inside the nucleus, wouldn’t be able to produce ribosomes. If the cell membrane were gone, the cell would be uprotected. Everything would lead to the death of the cell. What would happen if cells were missing organelles?

## What diseases are caused by the endoplasmic reticulum?

There is accumulating evidence implicating prolonged ER stress in the development and progression of many diseases, including neurodegeneration, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, liver disease, and cancer.

## Can ribosomes cause diseases?

Specifically, defects in ribosome biogenesis or function appear to be capable of causing anemia and other hematologic phenotypes, defects in growth and development, and congenital anomalies, such as craniofacial defects and thumb.

## What diseases are associated with the nucleus?

The nuclear lamina Mutations in A-type lamins cause a broad spectrum of human diseases, collectively referred to as laminopathies (14). These diseases include EDMD, dilated cardiomyopathy, Dunnigan-type FPLD, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disorder (Type II), and HGPS (reviewed in 14), which are discussed in more detail below.

## What is the major function of ribosomes?

Ribosomes have two main functions — decoding the message and the formation of peptide bonds. These two activities reside in two large ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) of unequal size, the ribosomal subunits. Each subunit is made of one or more ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and many ribosomal proteins (r-proteins).

## Where are ribosomes found?

Ribosomes are found ‘free’ in the cytoplasm or bound to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to form rough ER. In a mammalian cell there can be as many as 10 million ribosomes. Several ribosomes can be attached to the same mRNA strand, this structure is called a polysome. Ribosomes have only a temporary existence.

## Why is ribosome not an organelle?

Ribosomes are different from other organelles because they have no membrane around them that separates them from other organelles, they consist of two subunits, and when they are producing certain proteins they can become membrane bound to the endoplasmic reticulum, but they can also be free floating while performing …

## Why do ribosomes have two subunits?

Ribosomes consist of two subunits that fit together (Figure 2) and work as one to translate the mRNA into a polypeptide chain during protein synthesis (Figure 1). Because they are formed from two subunits of non-equal size, they are slightly longer in the axis than in diameter.

## Are ribosomes found in nucleus?

The nucleolus is a region found within the cell nucleus that is concerned with producing and assembling the cell’s ribosomes. Following assembly, ribosomes are transported to the cell cytoplasm where they serve as the sites for protein synthesis.

2021-06-17