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## What are pedigree charts used for?

​Pedigree. A pedigree is a genetic representation of a family tree that diagrams the inheritance of a trait or disease though several generations. The pedigree shows the relationships between family members and indicates which individuals express or silently carry the trait in question.

## What use do pedigrees have for determining probabilities?

Probabilities in pedigrees are calculated using the same basic methods as are used in other fields. The first formula is the product rule: the joint probability of two independent events is the product of their individual probabilities; this is the probability of one event AND another event occurring.

What evidence will a pedigree show for a dominant disorder?

In pedigree analysis, the main clues for identifying an autosomal dominant disorder are that the phenotype tends to appear in every generation of the pedigree and that affected fathers and mothers transmit the phenotype to both sons and daughters.

### What indicates an affected individual on a pedigree?

An individual in the pedigree will be affected (express the phenotype associated with a trait) when the individual carries at least one dominant allele of a dominant trait, or two recessive alleles of a recessive a trait.

### How do you know if someone is a carrier in a pedigree?

Pedigrees can show someone is a carrier for diseases by determining which parent, if not both, is either dominant or recessive. Each child must have a letter from their parent then that will determine if someone gets a disease or not then it goes on from generation to generation.

What does a triangle mean in terms of a pedigree?

Pregnancy symbols: Use a diamond if the gender is not yet known, a circle or a square if the gender is known. A triangle is used for any pregnancy not carried to term. Pregnancy (P), Stillbirth (SB), Spontaneous abortion (SAB), Termination of pregnancy (TOP), Ectopic pregnancy (ECT).

## What do the symbols mean in a pedigree?

Pedigrees are drawn using standard symbols and formatting. Males are represented by squares and females by circles. Individuals who are deceased have a slash through the symbol representing them. Carriers can be represented by a half-shaded symbol or by a dot in the middle of a symbol.

## How do you explain a pedigree chart?

A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance of phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next, most commonly humans, show dogs, and race horses.

What do circles represent in a pedigree?

In a pedigree, a circle represents a female, and a square represents a male. A filled-in circle or square shows that the individual has the trait being studied. The horizontal line that connects a circle and a square represents a marriage.

### How are males and females represented in a pedigree?

In human genetics, pedigree diagrams are utilized to trace the inheritance of a specific trait, abnormality, or disease. A male is represented by a square or the symbol ♂, a female by a circle or the symbol ♀. Siblings not shown as individual symbols are indicated by a number within a large symbol for each sex.

### What does a double line on a pedigree mean?

Consanguinious matings

How do you tell if a pedigree is dominant or recessive?

If both parents do not have the trait and the child does, it is recessive. If one parent has the trait and the child does or does not, it is dominant.

## What is a good inbreeding coefficient?

So, in terms of health, a COI less than 5% is definitely best. Above that, there are detrimental effects and risks, and the breeder needs to weigh these against whatever benefit is expected to gained. Inbreeding levels of 5-10% will have modest detrimental effects on the offspring.

## How do you show twins on a pedigree?

Monozygotic twins (identical): Indicated by two diagonal vertical lines originating from the same point. No children: A vertical line with 2 hash marks at the end.

How do you show half siblings on a pedigree?

Half-Siblings

1. To add a half sibling to the pedigree, first, make sure that the parent of the individual already has another spouse, if not, add another spouse to the parent.
2. Add a child to the second spouse and that child will then be the half-sibling of the proband.

### Can identical twins be different genders?

Boy/girl monozygotic (identical) twins In very rare cases, identical twins can be different sexes. These twins begin as identical male twins. Like all males, they both have XY sex chromosomes, instead of XX like all females do.

### What gender is more common in twins?

Here are your odds: Boy-girl twins are the most common kind of dizygotic twins, occurring 50% of the time. Girl-girl twins are the second most common occurrence. Boy-boy twins are the least common.

What happens if 2 sperm enter an egg?

Fertilization of an egg by two sperms results in the presence of a triploid chromosome set, including three sex chromosomes. Such a sperm fertilizing an egg by would yield a triploid condition. Second, an abnormal egg with two chromosome sets might be fertilized by a normal sperm.

## Can 1 baby have 2 fathers?

It is possible for twins to have different fathers in a phenomenon called heteropaternal superfecundation, which occurs when two of a woman’s eggs are fertilized by sperm from two different men. Ordinarily, a woman becomes pregnant because one of her eggs has been fertilized by sperm.

## Can 1 sperm fertilize 2 eggs?

With identical twins, one egg is fertilized by one sperm, and the embryo splits at some later stage to become two. Occasionally, two sperm are known to fertilize a single egg; this ‘double fertilization’ is thought to happen in about 1% of human conceptions.

Can a woman get pregnant by 2 different guys at the same time?

Superfecundation twins: When a woman has intercourse with two different men in a short period of time while ovulating, it’s possible for both men to impregnate her separately. In this case, two different sperm impregnate two different eggs. This is what happened to the woman in New Jersey.

### Can a woman get pregnant while already pregnant?

Superfetation means that a woman becomes pregnant while she is already pregnant. It’s extremely rare — fewer than a dozen cases of superfetation have been reported in the medical literature, said Dr.

### How can you tell if the baby is yours without a DNA test?

Determining Paternity without a DNA Test?

• Date of Conception. There are ways to estimate date of conception, which can be found all over the web.
• Eye-Color Test. An eye-color paternity test shows how eye color and inherited-trait theory can be used to help estimate paternity.
• Blood-Type Test.

How do I know if my baby is mine?

Getting Prenatal Tests. Have the NIPP test. Ask your doctor to test your blood and the potential father’s with the Non-Invasive Prenatal Paternity, or NIPP. Let your doctor collect the sample anytime after your 8th week of pregnancy, which ensures that the test can detect the baby’s DNA in your blood.

2021-05-14